World Wetland Day 2021

Wetland area are essential are for the biodiversity and the availability of water for environment. Too often, in the tropical area, these areas are confused with mangle swamp which is composed them. But there are more extensive and got many shades which made them zones too little known and studied

#WWD2021 #WetLand2021

Soil World Day 2020

A day to remind the major role of the soil in our lives, to eat, drink, breath and housing. The soil in part of the operation of the Biosphere as Water and Air

The last rainfall from September to November in the Caribbean were linked to hurricane, tropical wave and cold front. They have deeply destabilized the soil, triggered landslide and generated flooding.

The soil, our soil is in a dramatic state, bare, polluted by insecticide (Kepone, glyphosate, etc.), submerged by wastewater, suffocated by the concrete, for which life, biological and micro-biological activity are disturbed by modern life.

In that day, we have to hope that we all be aware of the situation and the risks which weighs on our lives now!

Landslide due to extreme rainfall of November 2020, Martinique, FWI
Landslide due to extreme rainfall of November 2020, Martinique, FWI

Chlordecone plan : public consultation


Figure 1. Scheme of Chlordecone Plan IV according to TCGNRG

The prefecture of Guadeloupe and Martinique have launched a public consultation on the future Kepone plan from Novembre 19th to December 18th. The will is to co-create the fourth plan of 2021-2027, with the population. Aims of this approach are clear : allow adhesion of the population and make the subject less cleaving.

It is true that the pollution by 300 tonnes of persistent organic pollutant of the soils between 1972 and 1993 has had effects. The toxicity of the molecule was known since 1975 (accident at the Hopwell plant in Virginia, USA). The agricultural world has benefited from ministerial derogations for its sell and usage. Effects are important on population health, agriculture, fishing and production and distribution of drinkable water. The molecule will take 300 to 600 years to be totally transported from the soil to the sea by lixiviation.
Many demonstrations have happened those recent years, violently repressed by police and justice.

Kepone (aka Chlordecone) [C10CL10O] was used against the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) but also against the leaf-cutting ant (Acromyrmex octospinosus) and the Giant African land snail (Lissachatina fulica). Its usage was not specific to the French Antilles. It is proved among others in Africa, East Europe for the potato crop or in French Guiana under the form of Mirex [C10Cl12] for the leaf-cutting ant.

The plan proposes six (6) strategies which are worth studying, with a provisional budget of 92 M€ (with 6 M€ from the EU and local collectivities) equivalent to 15.3 M€ per year, less than 20 € per capita per year, less than a blood test for Kepone at 80 € (see Figure 1).

Detailed analysis of the first version of the plan is questioning the aims of an approach which try to link the problematic of health, food, research, and training while taking into account the socio-economic situation. This plan for the French Antilles seems more based on the form of the approach than on the substance and the search for sustainable solutions.

Two point are particularly disturbing:

The aim of the strategy of “Research” (28% of the budget)
« The objective of this strategy is to develop transversal research taking into account the expectations of the local population, under the guidance of a scientific committee with a global vision of the impacts of kepone, and more broadly of other pesticides. »

So a funding up to 27M€ with only a goal to get a transversal project which will answer to the expectations (not necessarily to the issues) of the population. We are quite far from scientific research, hypothesis to validate and search for valid solutions.

The second point is the strategy « Socio-Economic » (6% of the budget)
Which will aim among other « […] the modernization of fishing and aquaculture tools. » and « […] sustainable fishing ». In a context of decreasing of the fishery resource particularly in the Caribbean Sea and the release kepone of the soil after lixiviation by tropical rainfall it seems strange to search to speak about sustainable fishery.

Fishery is a collect of food in an open geographic space, without physical boundaries. It is difficult to evaluate the resource continuously and ensure the perpetuity and so its sustainability.

Because of the numerous inaccuracies and the politics nature of this first version of the Chlordecone plan IV, it is important for the people to speak out. The citizens must raise its complaints and point out the lacks of this first version. So that the major interest which is the population health is truly taken into account, while ensuring the continuity of agricultural activities and fishery production as well as the preservation of biodiversity.

Link to the public consultation : https://consultationpublique-chlordecone.fr/

A New MPhil in Applied Physic

The Jamaican Green Desalination Project is glad to announce that the MPhil associated with the project was validated, in September 2020, by the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus. The thesis is entitled “RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR DESALINATION PROCESS: EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN A TROPICAL ISLAND USING DIGITAL TOOLS

Title page of the Williams MPhil thesis

It is an initial project of three years, fruit of collaboration of the TCG•NRG and UWI Mona. This research is innovative for Jamaica and proposes the use of the Reverse Osmosis process to be run with Renewable Energy. The work done took a snapshot of the freshwater and Renewable Energy resource based on up to 50 years of data. Maps of the best locations to produce freshwater based on the Renewable Energy resource (i.e., wind, solar and wave), freshwater need and the impact of the waste aka by-product (i.e., brine) on the coastal environment have been produced for Jamaica. The impacts of a desalination plant powered by Renewable Energy have been evaluated in equivalent carbon dioxide tons saved and volume of sea water needed to dilute the brine produced by the desalination process.

Jamaica has a new Master of philosophy in Applied physics named Zachary Williams. The Thesis will be available for download in the couple of months.

These three years of research set methodology to select:

  • the type of Desalination process based on the environmental conditions.
  • the Renewable Energy hybrid farm based on the available resources.

The study allows the conception of a numerical simulator, using among other GIS methods, to evaluate the Renewable Energy production based on historical data. Those tools allow for evaluation of the production of freshwater and waste for the next decades.

One of the main output is the generation of map of the best location a Green Powering Desalination plant (see figure)

Water Resource Notebook of Guadeloupe

The Caribbean Geophysical and Numerical Research Group is proud to announce the publication of the first notebook on the water resource of Guadeloupe edited by OREC Guadeloupe (Regional Energy & Climate Observatory) named « LA RESSOURCE EN EAU ET LE CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE » (WATER RESOURCE AND CLIMATE CHANGE)

This document is the fruit of the collaborative work of the technical committee of the water resource of the Regional Climate Expert Group of Guadeloupe composed by ten members form University of Antilles, BRGM (French Geological and Mining Research Office), IPGP-OBSERA (Earth Physic Institute of Paris – Observatory of water and erosion in the French West Indies), INRAe (French National Institute of Agronomic Research and Environment), Flè Kawbon (Carbon Flower -Design Office-), Office de l’Eau Guadeloupe (Water Office of Guadeloupe), TCGNRG and supervised by OREC Guadeloupe (Mrs Cynthia Bonine and Amélie Belfort).

The writing of the document has been committed to Jean-François Dorville et Romain Rochette who could not go to the end of this project by lack of time.

The document is intended for institutions and the general public. It inventors the available resource, presents the climatic projections and theirs expected effects but also the possible actions to mitigate them.

The document is composed of 40 pages, 22 illustrations, 4 tables and 20 pictures. It is organized in four parts:

  • A presentation of climate of Guadeloupe and its main features
  • An inventory of the water resource, mainly those which benefit from an administrative following.
  • A presentation of the climate prevision, mainly those which come from C3AF up to 2080 (IPPC RCP8.5 scenario), and their expected effects on the water resource and their usage.
  • A presentation of levers of action, means and methods available to mitigate the future effects

The document if freely downloadable in French on that link : Cahier_de_l_eau

A long abstract will be available soon

TCGNRG hopes that it will become a reference in the Caribbean area. We still available to answer to any questions on the field (contact@tcgnrg.com)

YouTube link of the video of presentation (in French with subtitle) : YouTube

Link to press article

RCI Guadeloupe (13/11/2020) : https://www.rci.fm/guadeloupe/infos/Environnement/Un-cahier-pour-comprendre-la-ressource-en-eau-et-le-changement-climatique-en

France Antilles Guadeloupe (11/11/2020) : https://www.guadeloupe.franceantilles.fr/actualite/environnement/un-webinaire-sur-la-ressource-en-eau-en-guadeloupe-et-le-changement-climatique-580152.php

France Antilles Guadeloupe (17/11/2020): https://www.guadeloupe.franceantilles.fr/actualite/environnement/nos-enfants-devront-apprendre-a-economiser-l-eau-580483.php

November 5th 2020, the World Tsunami Awareness day

Awareness

All people living near a water body (sea, large lake) must be aware that there are potentially exposed to waves caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, but also explosions with anthropic origins.

The size and shape of a tsunami wave depends on the energy that generated it and where it was originated and spread. It can be a few centimetres high to several tens of meters in height and the length between its crest and its trough ranging from several hundred meters to several hundred kilometres.

It is impossible to face a tsunamis wave of several meters, only the escape is possible towards places located at several tens of meters in height.

Prevention

It is essential on this awareness day to identify possible evacuation zones and the paths to get there.

The speed of propagation of tsunamis is such (several hundred kilometres per hour) that depending on the distance where they are generated, they can take several hours to impact an area and allow time to evacuate (tele-tsunamis), or only a few minutes (local tsunamis).

React

At the seaside, in the event of a sudden change in the water level (upward or downward) it is essential to evacuate the area, keep informed and take shelter in height.

Learn more :

http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index.php

https://tsunamiday.undrr.org/learn

Best wishes for 2020

All TCG•NRG wish you and your relatives a Happy New Year 2020!

In an environment where everything seems to be accelerating from a Physical point of view, Human being must remain at the centre in strong interaction with her / his environment (i.e., water, earth, air and life)

Our fears only come from lack of understanding or absence of truth… The Caribbean Geophysical and Numerical Research Group helps to understand, acquire and master knowledge at the scale of the earth or a city

TCG•NRG offers solutions in areas ranging from freshwater production, renewable energy assessment, management of sargassum stranding, marine and atmospheric pollution and natural hazards mitigation.

CARISCIENCE 2019 – Guadeloupe

From October 20th to October 22th 2019 University of Antilles at the Fouillole Campus in Guadeloupe hold the annual meeting of the CAS (Caribbean Academia of Science) and of CARISCIENCE.

The conference CARISCIENCE 2019 “CARIBBEAN SCIENCE AND INNOVATION MEETING” was the opportunity to award Dr. S. Haque for important work she done in Astrophysics, research of life in the Universe and popularization of science through action for youth and scientific TV show.

It was also the opportunity for Pr E. Calais of the ENS France (French Higher National School) to reaffirmed the high utility and need of the Geoscience in the Caribbean. By his presentation “Research, Training and Innovation in Earth Science: a Caribbean perspective?” Professor Calais list main applications can be done by the geoscience to the community. One can regret that his presentation was essentially focused on Natural Hazard and did not mention utility for every day and life quality. In any case The Caribbean Geophysical and Numerical Research Group policy and aim was indirectly confirmed by this presentation. He validated again the project defended by TCG•NRG at the scale of the Caribbean region.

The two days of conference was focus on four main themes : Biodiversity; Health; Agronomy; Risk and Chemistry.

The session organized are listed bellow:

  • Biodiversity & Health;
  • Biodiversity-Chemistry;
  • Risk;
  • Chemistry;
  • Biodiversity & Agronomy.

The large diversity of theme present during this conference was the opportunity for the TCGNRG to present part of two studies done in collaboration with students of UWI Mona and the Physics Department at the Faculty of Science and Technology.

A poster on wave energy potential around Jamaica by Alton Daley : “The First Steps Towards The Realization Of Energy From Oceanic Waves In Jamaica”. Alton present in this poster some interesting result of his Mphil study, particularly sea state around Jamaica. The poster is accessible on this link.

The second work is an oral presentation on a first LoRa experimentation for sensor network in Jamaica. This work is part of the Zachary William Mphil and #JamGreenDesal project : Using LoRa P2P NetworkforAutonomous Seawater Quality Monitor for Green Powering Desalination Plant

Initial poster which should presented before change by organizer in oral presentation is available on this link.

The work presented during this conference were of good quality with many interesting subject focused on the Caribbean area one can site the presentation on conch of Dr. Dalila Aldana-Aranda : “Scientific Cooperation in the Caribbean: Queen conch (Mollusca) as indicator of Climatic Change.”

National French Air Quality Day (9/18/2019)

France is celebrating its National Air Quality Day on 18 September under the auspices of the Ministry of Ecological and Solidarity Transition.

The quality of the air to a minimum of three essential elements :

  • we live permanently in the atmosphere, apart from short passages in liquid media, between 0 and 15km above the surface of the water (atmospheric boundary layer), our skin and most of our mucous membranes are in permanent contact with the air and these compounds;
  • we must inhale at least 10 to 30 thousand litres of air in a day to produce the energy needed for life using available oxygen;
  • High concentration and diversity of fine particles and airborne molecules in air mostly composed by nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and other gas.
Sketch of Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Human activities, geological (volcanism), meteorological (sand haze) and biological (fermentation of wet packed algae) in amount of other can perturb air quality over more or less long period.
In order to qualitatively and quantitatively assess quality of the air in which we move and we breathe, index have been put in place.
It is based on the determination of a value or a colour indicating the quality compared to a normal air or the risk related to particular particles or molecules.

In front of the considerable number of particle, the indices group several sees all the pollutants.
The atmospheric index (ATMO index) used in France takes into account Ozone (O3), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide NO2 and PM10 (particle up to 10 micrometres in diameter). Future evolutions predict the use of PM25.

Value of pollutants concentration used to compute ATMO Index

The information of the air quality must be correlated with our behaviour.
Placed in a rubbish bin all aware human being will seek to extract itself quickly, except special mission. An atmosphere of poor quality should be avoided.

It is therefore unfortunate that the information on atmospheric indices is not clearly required to avoid immediate risk behaviours such as smoky plumes from charcoal smokers (a large producer of fine particles) or run along roads and motorways at the end of the day at busy times.
Talking about situations that are not palpable enough (i.e., not visible or too far away) does not allow the conceptualization of pollution, makes the notion too abstract and does not allow the acceptance of behaviour that has a strong impact on lifestyles and the economy. But ensures a better, healthier, more peaceful and less violent life.

Information, especially the one which was worked to produce index, means something and must be understood and accepted. TCGNRG participates in this understanding and awareness with the help of adapted training, advices and atmospheric modelling and human behaviour, do not hesitate to contact us for more information.

Atmospheric Index at worldwide scale  : https://waqi.info/fr/

International Sargassum Conference, Guadeloupe 2019 : a first analyse


From 23 to 26 October Regional Council of Guadeloupe wants to be the convergent point of know-how and techniques for mitigating Sargassum algae effects through the organization of the international conference financed by the European program of regional cooperation InterReg Caraïbe.

The objectives of this conference were presented during the steering committee set up on April 16, 2016 are

  • better understand the Sargassum phenomenon at the Caribbean level;
  • share experiences in collection, processing and recovery of algae;
  • sign on the international political agenda issues of massive sargassum invasion.

The answer to the first point can only come from research and technological innovations. This objective therefore requires a real investment in competent human resources.

The second point raises the question of the effectiveness of methods already tested, all of which have major drawbacks which considerably aggravate the environmental resource. The current level of knowledge is too limited to assess medium and long-term consequences.

The third point, on the other hand, is a pious wish. How politically collaborate to mitigate a phenomenon whose origins and modes of growth, spatial and temporal distribution, are as poorly known. The absence of boundaries and natural barriers when pelagic algae is advected makes it necessary to regulate invasion situations at local scales. The hope of have a turnkey solution rests solely on the convictions of predatory vendors.

A first analysis



Fig. 1: Distribution of subjects in hourly amount during the International Conference Sargassum2019 in Guadeloupe, FWI

The planning for the international conference was unveiled last week (week # 36). Without access to the detailed program, a quantitative analysis can be conducted nevertheless to understand the essence of this conference.

During the four days of that event, we can note the large number of communication actions with the public screening of a documentary , a televised debate, a public debate and a press conference with a total duration of 5h52 min (2h30min + 1h30min + 1h + 52min).

The state of knowledge, reserved to the first day is limited to 3h15min, coffee break included. The rest of the day is planned for the TV debate and presentation of the projects selected for the Sargassum call for projects .

Experience sharing of Friday, October 25th 2019 seems more provided spread over 4h30min, leaving the best place to the case of the Dominican Republic and Mexico, where their main issues are the preservation of sites operated by the tourism industry (>8 M of visitors for 2018 in Quintana Roo -Mexican state- and >6.5 M to Dominican Republic). The rest of the day is reserved for presentation of funding opportunities and the public debate.

The last day dealt with the cooperation to fight sargassum and international strategies during almost 3 hours. We hope that this morning will allow states and territories which are all concurrent in tourism, fishing and marine mining resources, to take stock of the situation put theirs differences other side and share their human resources and knowledges. Announced presence of the Prime ministry of the French Republic, Édouard Philippe, should not change nothing. Despite the Paris Agreement France are doing little choice in favour of nature and public health.

Conclusion

This succinct analysis gives a vision of the objectives of this conference, unfortunately far from the TCGNRG vision and possibly of the resolution of this situation.

It should be remembered what the named Sargassum crisis is in fact an imbalance of nutriments (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.) across the Atlantic and most of the coastal area which promote the growth of algae. We must noted that during their pelagic phase the growth and reproduction (by cuttings) rates of Sargassum algae is not stopped.

To this imbalance one must added a structural and intellectual incapacity to rethink the management of organic matter in an overly industrialized environmental system.